Betalain yang terdapat pada buah bit yang diyakini mampu menurunkan pembentukan gula dari senyawa karbohidrat dan meningkatkan sintesis glikogen, atau gula yang disimpan dalam bentuk energi.
Therapeutic Application of Betalains: A Review
Anthocyanins, betalains, riboflavin, carotenoids, chlorophylls and caramel are the basic natural food colorants used in modern food manufacture. Betalains, which are composed of red–violet betacyanin and yellow betaxanthins, are water-soluble pigments that color flowers and fruits. Betalains are pigments primarily produced by plants of the order Caryophyllales. Because of their anti-inflammatory, cognitive impairment, anticancer and anti-hepatitis properties, betalains are useful as pharmaceutical agents and dietary supplements. Betalains also exhibit antimicrobial and antimalarial effects, and as an example, betalain-rich Amaranthus spinosus displays prominent antimalarial activity. Studies also confirmed the antidiabetic effect of betalains, which reduced glycemia by 40% without causing weight loss or liver impairment. These findings show that betalain colorants may be a promising alternative to the synthetic dyes currently used as food additives.